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Posted by / 27-Oct-2020 18:51

Hpv dating genital warts herpes

These can be done in individuals whose characteristics are known and can be controlled for, and if the relationship truly is monogamous then infections by acute STIs and from outsiders can be ruled out.One disadvantage is that condom use in long-term relationships, even in serodiscordant couples, is relatively rare.Another is that the HIV-positive partner will be chronically infected and so will not have the very high viral load characteristic of acute HIV infection.Thirdly, in long-term serodiscordant relationships, studies have shown that the HIV-negative partner can acquire a degree of immunity to their partner’s HIV.Research early on in the epidemic showed that 40 to 70% of men who claimed they use condoms 100% of the time in fact did not use them for every act of intercourse.Twenty years later, 51 to 66% of women taking part in a microbicide study reported 100% condom usage at different time points during the trial, but the researchers calculated from inconsistency in their answers that the actual proportion who maintained 100% condom use was 25%.The evidence we have is based on three types of trials, and each has potential weaknesses.For efficacy against HIV and other chronic STIs, studies of the incidence of HIV (or HSV or HPV) in monogamous serodiscordant couples provides the best evidence.

For all these reasons, large studies may be needed to establish differences in HIV (and HSV and HPV) incidence between condom users and non-users.Studies of condom efficacy have therefore largely contrasted HIV and STI incidence or prevalence in people who claim 100% consistent use against people who use them inconsistently or not at all.Because these studies involve private behaviours that investigators cannot observe directly, it is difficult to determine accurately whether an individual is a condom user and whether condoms are used consistently and correctly.Consistently used condoms provide significant protection against HIV, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).The degree of protection they offer against HIV and STIs is significantly better than any other single prevention method, taken in isolation, other than sexual abstinence or complete mutual monogamy between two people who have tested negative for HIV.

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The efficacy of an intervention is how well it works in a scientific trial or when people use it as indicated, i.e.

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