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Illiteracy was widespread, and those lucky enough to attend school seldom made it past the first or second grades.
On May 20, 1902, the birth date of the first Cuban republic, no leader had the power to harness the passions and ambitions unleashed by independence. Democratic Hopes All the tensions of the First Republic exploded in revolution in 1933.
University students, labor unions, and disaffected army officers joined in rebellion against Cuba's fifth president, Gerardo Machado, a man who had taken corruption and repression to new heights.
A university professor, Ramón Grau San Martín, took power at the head of a coalition.
Author Carlos Alberto Montaner describes the mood: "the talk was about democracy, freedom and respect for human rights; the...
objective was to restore the rule of law that had been swept aside by Batista." Even Castro -- a dynamic national figure following his failed Moncada assault of 1953 -- spoke in those terms. Our political philosophy is representative democracy and social justice in a well-planned economy." Many wealthy Cubans welcomed Castro's rebel triumph in January 1959.
Even President Fulgencio Batista, a mulatto, was denied membership in one of Havana's most exclusive clubs.